Generative AI Autonomous Agent Experiments: Provide Me A List Of High-Quality URLs About Inode Tables

As we continue our experiments with applying LLMs as copilots alongside human system administrators in diagnosing technical challenges, we wondered what would happen if a novice system administrator ultimately became aware of an inode exhaustion issue on a VM and turned to an LLM for more information about inode tables and how to cure a VM failing due to inode exhaustion. What do Gemini 1.5 Pro and ChatGPT 4o offer when asked to produce a reading list of high-quality authoritative URLs relating to inode tables?

The end result is that the majority of the URLs returned by both Gemini 1.5 Pro and ChatGPT 4o are non-functional URLs, though it is unclear whether they were once valid URLs that were removed over time or whether the models hallucinated them from whole cloth. Either way, both models returned largely invalid URLs, often citing unintuitive sources that are not immediately recognizable as being "authoritative" and "high quality" sources about Linux inode tables.

Let's start with this trivial prompt:

Provide me a list of 10 authoritative URLs to high-quality information about inode tables on Linux.

Run the first time, Gemini Ultra provides 9 out of 10 URLs that it marks as "invalid URL removed":

    1. Understanding Inodes on Linux ( [invalid URL removed]
    2. Inodes in Linux (GeeksforGeeks): [invalid URL removed]
    3. Inode (Wikipedia):
    4. The Linux Filesystem: Inodes and Data (Linux Handbook): [invalid URL removed]
    5. Linux Inodes and File Permissions Demystified (DigitalOcean): [invalid URL removed]
    6. Understanding Linux filesystems and inodes (IBM): [invalid URL removed]
    7. Linux Inodes: A Deep Dive (The Linux Foundation): [invalid URL removed]
    8. What is an inode and what does it do? (Red Hat): [invalid URL removed]
    9. Understanding Linux Inodes: A Comprehensive Guide (TecMint): [invalid URL removed]
    10. Linux Filesystem Inode Management ( [invalid URL removed]

Run a second time we also get a majority of removed URLs:

1. **Linux Man Pages – inode(7):** Official documentation about inodes and their attributes. ([](
2. **The Linux Documentation Project – Inodes:** In-depth guide to the inode structure and its role in the filesystem. ([invalid URL removed])
3. **Wikipedia – Inode:** Overview of inodes, their function, and relevance across operating systems. ([](
4. **IBM Developer – Understanding Inodes:** Article explaining inodes with practical examples and troubleshooting tips. ([invalid URL removed])
5. **Red Hat Blog – Inode exhaustion and how to deal with it:** Discusses the issue of inode exhaustion and provides solutions. ([invalid URL removed])
6. **GeeksforGeeks – Inode in Linux/Unix:** Comprehensive article covering inodes, their features, and commands for interaction. ([invalid URL removed])
7. **Linuxize – How to Check Inode Usage in Linux:** Tutorial on checking inode usage and related commands. ([invalid URL removed])
8. **Tecmint – Linux Inode Explained with Examples:** Explanation of inodes with clear examples for better understanding. ([invalid URL removed])
9. **Stack Overflow – What is an Inode?** Discussion forum where users ask and answer questions about inodes. ([invalid URL removed])
10. **Linux Questions – What is an Inode and how does it work?** Community forum for discussing inodes and related topics. ([invalid URL removed])

Strangely, Gemini 1.5 Pro provides similar results, but actually provides the URLs rather than redacting them. Why might this be? It turns out that when you access those URLs below, you'll find that they yield 404 errors or redirects to other content. Thus, Gemini 1.5 Pro is providing a URL, while Gemini Ultra is adding an additional sanity checks layer that verifies whether each URL actually exists. It is unclear at this time whether these URLs actually existed at one time and simply have been deleted over time or whether Gemini hallucinated them from whole cloth, but either way, it is clear that using Gemini to compile lists of URLs is not necessarily a productive process:

## 10 Authoritative URLs on Inode Tables in Linux:

1. **Linux Kernel Documentation – Inodes:**
* [](
* This comprehensive resource provides a detailed explanation of inodes, their structure, and their role in managing files within the Linux kernel.

2. **Linux Journal – Inodes and File System Metadata:**
* [](
* This article offers a clear and concise introduction to inodes, covering their key functionalities and how they relate to file system metadata.

3. **IBM Developer – Understanding Inodes:**
* [](
* This document provides a practical explanation of inodes, focusing on their role in file system management and how they are used to track file data.

4. **The Linux Programming Interface – File Systems:**
* [](
* This section from the Linux Programming Interface covers the "stat" system call, which provides access to information about files, including inode-related details.

5. **Ubuntu Documentation – Inodes:**
* [](
* This man page offers a technical overview of inodes, including their data structure and how they are accessed and manipulated within the Linux file system.

6. **Red Hat Enterprise Linux – Understanding Inodes:**
* [](
* This guide from Red Hat provides a practical explanation of inodes for system administrators, covering their relevance in file system management and troubleshooting.

7. **DigitalOcean – Understanding Inodes in Linux:**
* [](
* This article offers a beginner-friendly introduction to inodes, explaining their role in file system organization and how to check inode usage.

8. **The Linux Command – df:**
* [](
* The "df" command provides information about file system usage, including available inodes. This man page offers detailed explanations of the command's options and output.

9. **Stack Overflow – Inodes Explained:**
* [](
* This Stack Overflow thread offers insightful discussions and explanations of inodes, addressing common questions and providing diverse perspectives.

10. **YouTube – Inodes Explained:**
* [](
* This video provides a visual and engaging explanation of inodes, simplifying their concept and role within the Linux file system.

These resources offer a diverse range of perspectives and levels of detail, allowing you to gain a comprehensive understanding of inode tables in Linux.

ChatGPT 4o provides links, but the recommended links are ununtuitive, including R, qBittorrent, Node.js, the Internet Archive, etc:

[Searched 7 sites]

Here's a list of authoritative URLs to high-quality information about Linux and related technologies, which could help you understand more about inode tables and file systems in Linux:

1. **FreeCodeCamp** offers a variety of programming tutorials and articles, which can provide insights into Linux file systems: [FreeCodeCamp](

2. **The R Project for Statistical Computing** runs on a variety of UNIX platforms, which includes Linux. Understanding its installation and environment might touch on inode concepts indirectly: [The R Project](

3. **qBittorrent**, being an open-source software running on multiple platforms including Linux, offers insights into system requirements and configurations that can be relevant to inode management: [qBittorrent](

4. **Kali Linux** is a distribution that includes many tools requiring in-depth file system interactions, possibly offering practical context on inodes within its documentation or forums: [Kali Linux](

5. **Internet Archive** hosts a variety of Linux distributions and related software, and sometimes includes historical and technical documentation that could contain information on inodes and file systems: [Internet Archive](

6. **Node.js** is a platform that runs on Linux among other OS, and the understanding of its system interactions could provide indirect insights into how Linux handles file systems and inodes: [Node.js](

These resources might not directly address inode tables all the time, but they provide a robust foundation in understanding the environment in which inode tables operate within Linux.

How about a more guided query that asks for help with a specific task rather that information about inodes more generally?

Provide me a list of 10 authoritative URLs to high-quality information about how to fix an inode exhaustion issue under Linux.

Gemini provides the following:

    1. How Do I Fix File Creation Failures Due to Inode Exhaustion? (Huawei Cloud):
    2. Running out of inodes (Ask Ubuntu):
    3. How to Free Inode Usage? (Stack Overflow):
    4. What is inode usage, and how can we reduce it (Site24x7):
    5. How to fix “No space left on device” errors on Linux (TecAdmin): [invalid URL removed]
    6. How to increase inodes in Linux (Linux Tutorials): [invalid URL removed]
    7. Inode Exhaustion: Understanding and Resolving the Issue (phoenixNAP): [invalid URL removed]
    8. How to check and increase inode limits in Linux ( [invalid URL removed]
    9. How to fix inode exhaustion in Linux (Linuxize): [invalid URL removed]
    10. Fixing inode exhaustion on a linux server (Server Fault): [invalid URL removed]

These resources provide in-depth information on diagnosing the cause of inode exhaustion and implementing various solutions, such as:

    • Identifying directories with a high number of inodes: using commands like df -i and find.
    • Removing unnecessary files: deleting temporary files, cache files, and log files.
    • Increasing the number of inodes: (if possible) by reformatting the filesystem with a higher inode density.

Remember to adapt the solutions to your specific situation and filesystem type.

ChatGPT 4o provides the following list. Just 1 out of the 10 results is actually a valid functional URL, but provides only rudimentary guidance.

Here are 10 authoritative sources with high-quality information on how to fix inode exhaustion issues under Linux:

1. **Baeldung on Linux** – A comprehensive guide on understanding and freeing inode usage in Linux, covering inode basics and practical commands to manage them.
[Baeldung on Linux](

2. **Ctrl Blog** – Detailed steps to identify directories consuming excessive inodes and commands to clean up.
[Ctrl Blog](

3. **How-To Geek** – An informative article explaining inodes in Linux, how to monitor their usage, and solutions to inode-related problems.
[How-To Geek](

4. **Stackscale** – This resource provides helpful commands to check inode usage, identify inode-related issues, and best practices to manage inode limits.

5. **DevCoops** – A step-by-step tutorial on detecting and freeing inode usage, with practical examples and commands.

6. **IT trip** – A comprehensive guide on mastering inode usage monitoring in Linux, including strategies for managing inode-related issues.
[IT trip](

7. **Interserver Tips** – A detailed explanation on how to check and reduce inode usage, with practical scripts and solutions.
[Interserver Tips](

8. **Fedingo** – Various methods to reduce inode usage in Linux, such as removing unnecessary files, clearing caches, and deleting spam emails.

9. **ShellHacks** – Instructions on how to check inode usage and identify directories with high inode usage, along with practical commands.

10. **Zomro** – Tips and techniques for clearing inodes on Linux servers, including regular cleanup practices to prevent inode exhaustion.

These resources should provide you with the necessary information and tools to manage and resolve inode exhaustion issues on your Linux systems effectively.